Past Issue

Volume 17, Number 2, Summer 2015, Serial Number: 66, Pages: 322-331

Effects of Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz) Exposure on Apoptosis, Sperm Parameters and Testicular Histomorphometry in Rats: A Time Course Study


Saeed Shokri, Ph.D, 1, *, Aiob Soltani, M.Sc, 2, Mahsa Kazemi, M.Sc, 3, Dariush Sardari, Ph.D, 2, Farshid Babapoor Mofrad, Ph.D, 2,
Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences (ZUMS), Zanjan, Iran
Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran
*Corresponding Address: P.O.Box: 45139-56111 Department of Anatomical Sciences Faculty of Medicine Zanjan University of Medical Sciences (ZUMS) Zanjan Iran Email:saeedshus@zums.ac.ir

Abstract

Objective

In today’s world, 2.45-GHz radio-frequency radiation (RFR) from industrial, scientific, medical, military and domestic applications is the main part of indoor-outdoor electromagnetic field exposure. Long-term effects of 2.45-GHz Wi-Fi radiation on male reproductive system was not known completely. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the major cause of male infertility during short- and long-term exposure of Wi-Fi radiation.

Materials and Methods

This is an animal experimental study, which was conducted in the Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, IRAN, from June to August 2014. Three-month-old male Wistar rats (n=27) were exposed to the 2.45 GHz radiation in a chamber with two Wi-Fi antennas on opposite walls. Animals were divided into the three following groups: I. control group (n=9) including healthy animals without any exposure to the antenna, II. 1-hour group (n=9) exposed to the 2.45 GHz Wi-Fi radiation for 1 hour per day during two months and III.7-hour group (n=9) exposed to the 2.45 GHz Wi-Fi radiation for 7 hours per day during 2 months. Sperm parameters, caspase-3 concentrations, histomorphometric changes of testis in addition to the apoptotic indexes were evaluated in the exposed and control animals.

Results

Both 1-hour and 7-hour groups showed a decrease in sperm parameters in a time dependent pattern. In parallel, the number of apoptosis-positive cells and caspase-3 activity increased in the seminiferous tubules of exposed rats. The seminal vesicle weight reduced significantly in both1-hour or 7-hour groups in comparison to the control group.

Conclusion

Regarding to the progressive privilege of 2.45 GHz wireless networks in our environment, we concluded that there should be a major concern regarding the timedependent exposure of whole-body to the higher frequencies of Wi-Fi networks existing in the vicinity of our living places.