Melatonin Ameliorates The Production of COX-2, iNOS,
and The Formation of 8-OHdG in Non-Targeted Lung
Tissue after Pelvic Irradiation
In this study, we evaluated the bystander effect of radiation on the regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in lung tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats with and without pre-administration of melatonin. A 2×2 cm2 area of the pelvis of male Sprague-Dawley rats with and without pre-administration of melatonin (100 mg/kg) by oral and intraperitoneal injection was irradiated with a 3 Gy dose of 1.25 MeV γ-rays. Alterations in the levels of COX-2, iNOS, and 8-OHdG in the out-of-field lung areas of the animals were detected by enzyme immunoassay. The bystander effect significantly increased COX-2, iNOS, and 8-OHdG levels in non-targeted lung tissues (P<0.05). Melatonin ameliorated the bystander effect of radiation and significantly reduced the level of all examined biomarkers (P<0.05). The results indicated that the ameliorating effect of a pre-intraperitoneal (IP) injection of melatonin was noticeably greater compared to oral pre-administration. Our findings revealed that the bystander effect of radiation could induce oxidative DNA damage and increase the levels of imperative COX-2 and iNOS in non-targeted lung tissues. Interestingly, melatonin could modulate the indirect destructive effect of radiation and reduce DNA damage in non-targeted cells.