Objective: The progressive aging of the population has highlighted the importance of discovering therapeutic alternatives for diseases of high incidence and disability, such as stroke. The only approved therapy for stroke is tPA, strongly limited by the short therapeutic window and hemorrhagic complications, therefore excluding most patients from its benefits. Materials and Methods: In this review article, electronic searches were undertaken in PubMed, Scholar google and up to date, since 2009. Results: Menstrual blood is a source of stem cells with potential relevance for the treatment of stroke that is recurring and readily accessible. Immunocytochemical assays of cultured menstrual blood reveal that they express embryonic-like stem cell phenotypic markers (Oct4, SSEA, Nanog), and when grown in appropriate conditioned media, express neuronal phenotypic markers (Nestin, MAP2). Migration to the infarct site, modulation of the inflammatory reaction, secretion of neurotrophic factors, and possible differentiation warrant these cells as therapeutic tools. Transplantation of menstrual blood-derived stem cells, either intracerebrally or intravenously and without immunosuppression, after experimentally induced ischemic stroke in adult rats also significantly reduced behavioral and histological impairments compared to vehicle-infused rats. Conclusion: Menstrual blood-derived cells exemplify a source of "individually tailored" donor cells that completely match the transplant recipient, at least in women. Neurostructural and behavioral benefits afforded by transplanted menstrual blood-derived cells support their use as a stem cell source for cell therapy in stroke. Menstrual stem cells are a novel cell population that may be routinely and safely isolated to provide a renewable source of stem cells from child-bearing women.