Estimation the Frequency of Human Immunodeficiency
Virus among Male and Female Patients, Iran
A reduction in new human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) cases is one of the ten areas prioritized by the United Nations Program on HIV. However, recent official reports confirm the HIV rate is increasing and predicted a huge incidence in the near future in Iran, despite the preventative program by Iran's Health Ministry. In this descriptive study, we evaluate the frequency of HIV positive cases among referral patients to a private clinic laboratory for its diagnosis in addition to specimens from other laboratories. An epidemiological analysis is also performed.
Materials and Methods:
In this descriptive study, the total number of patients was 138 cases that referred for the diagnosis of HIV to the private Laboratory. Of these, 93 males (67.4%) and 45 females (32.6%) voluntarily requested to be examined for specific increases in specific antibody titer, western blot assays and RNA quantitation polymerase chain reaction. We collected two separate tubes of whole blood, one for reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction analysis and the second one for the remaining two tests. Those patients who were antibody positive by western blot and/or reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) analyses were considered as HIV positive cases.
There were 18.84% confirmed HIVcases (17.39% males; 1.45% females). Analysis of the results confirmed that the ratio of male to female patients in the infected group was not comparable to those in the suspect group. The majority of HIV positive cases were either infected by their partner via sexual intercourse (84.61%) or needle sticks (11.53%) among the drug addicted group. The infection routes of the remainder were unknown.
Analysis of the data revealed a higher frequency of HIVin males than females among the tested group. There was a shift in to unsafe sexual intercourse as seen in the present study. The higher rate of infected male patients shows a shift in transmission route to unsafe intercourse. Therefore, it is necessary to design new supportive programs by actively identifying and contacting at-risk groups, particularly infected females who are uninterested in being and monitored.