Objective: The widespread use of sulfur mustard (SM) as a chemical warfare agent in the past century has proved its long-lasting toxic effects. Therefore, all health professionals should have sufficient knowledge and be prepared for any such chemical attack. SM is an alkylating agent that affects on DNA synthesis, and, thus, delayed complications have been seen. However, despite a lot of research over the past decades on Iranian veterans, there are still major gaps in the SM literature. Transforming growth factor (TGF-β), a cytokine that affects many different cell processes, has an important role in the lungs of patients with some of chronic airway diseases, especially with respect to airway remodeling in mustard lung. Airway remodeling is characterized by defective extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover. Fibroblasts have a central role in ECM turnover. The TGF-β provides intracellular signals to regulate ECM production. We address the following hypothesis airway fibroblasts have abnormal expression of TGF beta in SM injured people in comparison with normal individuals. Materials and Methods: To test this hypothesis, we used cell culture as an in vitro model. Thus, we isolated and cultured primary airway fibroblasts from epibronchial biopsies, and investigated gene expression of TGF-β 1, 2 in primary fibroblasts of SM injured patients and controls. Expression of TGF-β in control and the SM exposed samples was measured by Semiquantitative RT-PCR. Results: Our findings revealed that expression levels of TGF-β was upregulated in the airway Fibroblasts of SM exposed patients in comparison with control samples, protein level evaluation with western blooting is under elucidate. Conclusion: Our novel data, suggested that over-expression of TGF-β molecule in airway fibroblasts of mustard gas injured patients may involve in progression of airway remodeling of these patients at mRNA levels.