Ethanol Induced Histological and Histochemical Changes in Testis Sperm DNA Damage Chromatin Integrity and Sperm Abnormality in the Experimental Model: Rat Model

Ahmadi A *, Sadrkhanlou R , Najafi G.H , Raberi A , Ghafari S , Kargar K , Ebrahimzade S ,


Objective: Alcoholism in men causes increase in abnormal shaped sperms that can lead to impotency. Abnormal liver function and high estrogen levels may cause interference with sperm development which can severely suppress sperm. Moreover alcohol abuse has been linked with damaged sperm and reduced sperm counts. . Like a toxin alcohol may destroy the sperm-generating cells. In addition to this alcohol abuse can also have adverse effects on the hormone levels in men. which may interfere with sperm development and hormone levels. Alcohol is also a toxin that can kill off the sperm-generating cells in the testicle. Worse still chronic alcoholism can cause atrophy in the testicles gynecomastia and the lack of sexual interest. Excessive alcohol consumption causes a disorder in the gonads resulting in changes in the structure of the testicles and decline in the T serum level. A <font>drop</font> in the T serum level can cause male infertility. In addition alcohol can result in abnormalities in sperm size shape and the sperm tail. Sperm motility can also be affected negatively. This change in sperm shape can seriously compromise the viability of the spermatozoa. Also chronic alcoholism damages the sperm morphology that often has irreversible effects. Materials and Methods: 42 adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=7 each) with two groups serving as control in the treatment groups were received 10% ethanol in distilled water for 3570 and 120 days. All rats were sacrificed by CO2 inhalation and testis tissues were removed and prepared for Histological ( H&E Vaigrate Iodine and Toloedine blue(for mast cells) staining) and Histochemical ( by cryosection and Lipase Oil Red O staining methods) study. In addition spermatozoa were removed from cauda epididymis and analyzed for sperm motility concentration in the cauda epididymis viability and sperm chromatin quality and DNA integrity was assessed by Aniline blue and Acridine Orange staining following sperm sample preparation. Serum testosterone and estrogen level was determined by radioimmunoassay technique. Results: This study confirmed that treated by Ethanol had significant decrease the testosterone level in plasma. . Ethanol had significant increase the DNA Damage and chromatin abnormality in the cauda epididymal spermatozoa as evidenced by Acridine Orange (AO) and Aniline blue staining respectively. Treatment of male rat with Ethanol caused significant decrease in sperm count motility and viability while abnormal sperms increased as compared to control. Histological and histomorphometrical study confirmed that Ethanol had significant decrease the semniferous tubules diameter number of germinal cells and spermatogenesis in the semniferous tubules and increase the connective tissue and appearance of vacuolated edema in the interstitial connective tissue between the seminiferous tubules and with increased hypotrophic mass of leydig cells. Toloidine blue staining confirmed that Ethanol had significant increase the number of Mast cells in testis and epididymis tissues. Histochemical study by Oil Red O and Lipase methods confirmed that Ethanol had significant increase the fat <font>drop</font>lets in the semniferous tubules and lipase reaction confirmed that the Ethanol had increase the lipase enzyme in the testis tissue. Conclusion: Conclusion Yes drinking alcohol can adversely affect on fertility and also cause damage to baby. The male reproductive system consists of the hypothalamus the anterior pituitary gland and the testes. Alcohol can interfere with the function of each of these components thereby causing impotence infertility and reduced male secondary sexual characteristics. In the testes alcohol can adversely affect the Leydig cells which produce and secrete the hormone testosterone. Studies found that heavy alcohol consumption results in reduced testosterone levels in the blood. Alcohol also impairs the function of the testicular Sertoli cells that play an important role in sperm maturation. In the pituitary gland alcohol can decrease the production release and/or activity of two hormones with critical reproductive functions LH and FSH. Finally alcohol can interfere with hormone production in the hypothalamus.