Male Infertility and Glutathione (Pages: 0-0)

Hosseini S *,


Objective: “Glutathione is a tripeptide” and known as GSH just might be one of the most extraordinart overall health - boosters of modern nutritional medicine. GSH may help with everything from heightened immune system functioning to overcoming addictions to anti-aging and objective .” Many people are aware that sperm counts have <font>drop</font>ped by half in the last 50 years and that modern men have 20 percent less semen volume than their fathers. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and endocrine-disrupting chemicals from normal everyday plastics are known to cause reproductive damage Damage tosperm caused by exposure to common chemicals like alcohol and pesticides in food has been linked to lowered intelligence and behavioral disorders in children . Studies show that anti-oxidant supplementation - glutathione in particular - can improve sperm quality and possibly increase your chances of conceiving . Materials and Methods: This is review article. Results: Mammalian spermatozoa are coated by a membrane rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids . These fatty acids are extremely susceptible to oxidative damage by free radicals or Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) by a process called lipid peroxidation (LPO) . Lipid peroxidation damages the sperm cell membrance . It is considered to be the key mechanism of ROS- induced sperm damage and leads to * Loss of sperm motility * Abnormal sperm morphlogy * Reduced capacity for oocyte penetration * Infertility To protect sperm from damage the body depends on powerful antioxidant enzymes in the body such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalase and glutathione/reductase (GPX/GRD). Some amount of all the antioxidant enzymes which may protect spermatozoa from axidative attack are also made by the epididymis during storage. The glutathione peroxidase/reductase enzymes play a central role in the defense against oxidative damage in human sperm. Results and Discussion: A decrease in levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) during sperm production is known to disrupt the membrane integrity of spermatozoa due increased oxidative stress . Intracellular glutathione levels of spermatozoa are known to be decreased in certain populations of infertile men . Conclusion: Glutathione is not only vital to sperm antioxidant defenses but selenium and glutathione are essential to the formation of “ phosholipid hy<font>drop</font>eroxide glutathione peroxidase” -an enzyme present in spermatids - which becomes a structural protein in the mid-piece of mature spermatozoa. When either substance is deficient it can lead to instability of the mid-piece of the spermatozoa resulting in defective motility. Free radical scavengers - such as glutathione-that restore the structure and function of poly - unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the cell membrane can be used to treat these cases.