Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress at Out-of-Field
Lung Tissues after Pelvis Irradiation in Rats
The out-of-field/non-target effect is one of the most important phenomena of
ionizing radiation that leads to molecular and cellular damage to distant non-irradiated tissues. The most important concern about this phenomenon is carcinogenesis many years
after radiation treatment.
Materials and Methods
In this experimentalinterventional study, Sprague-Dawleymale rats (n=49) were divided into seven groups (n=7/each group), including two groups of pelvis- exposed rats (out-of-field groups), two groups of whole bodyexposed rats (scatter groups), two groups of lung-exposed rats (direct irradiation groups), and one control sham group. Out- of-field groups were irradiated at a 2×2 cm area in the pelvis region with 3 Gy using 1.25 MeV cobalt-60 gamma-ray source, and subsequently, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in out-of-field lung tissues were measured. Results were compared to direct irradiation, control and scatter groups at 24 and 72 hours after exposure. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test.
SOD activity decreased in out-of-field lung tissue 24 and 72 hours after irradiation as compared with the controls and scatter groups. GSH level decreased 24 hours after exposure and increased 72 hours after exposure in the out-of-field groups as compared with the scatter groups. MDA level in out-of-field groups only increased 24 hours after irradiation.
Pelvis irradiation induced oxidative damage in distant lung tissue that led to a dramatic decrease in SOD activity. This oxidative stress was remarkable, but it was less durable as compared to direct irradiation.