Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Cellular and Molecular Pathophysiology at A Glance


Bahar Saberzadeh-Ardestani, M.Sc, 1,#Razieh Karamzadeh, Ph.D, 1,#Mohsen Basiri, Ph.D, 1Ensiyeh Hajizadeh-Saffar, Ph.D., 1Aisan Farhadi, M.Sc., 1A.M. James Shapiro, Ph.D., 2Yaser Tahamtani, Ph.D., 1,*Hossein Baharvand, Ph.D., 1,3,*
Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran, Iran
Clinical Islet Transplant Program and Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada
Department of Developmental Biology, University of Science and Culture, Tehran, Iran
Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran, Iran
Clinical Islet Transplant Program and Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada
Department of Developmental Biology, University of Science and Culture, Tehran, Iran
*Corresponding Address: P.O.Box: 16635-141 Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology Cell Science Research Center Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology ACECR Tehran Iran Emails:yasertahamtani@Royaninstitute.org,Baharvand@Royaninstitute.org

The first two authors equally contributed to this article.

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Abstract

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a disease where destruction of the insulin producing pancreatic beta-cells leads to increased blood sugar levels. Both genetic and environmental factors play a part in the development of T1DM. Currently, numerous loci are specified to be the responsible genetic factors for T1DM; however, the mechanisms of only a few of these genes are known. Although several environmental factors are presumed responsible for progression of T1DM, to date, most of their mechanisms remain undiscovered. After several years of hyperglycemia, late onsets of macrovascular (e.g., cardiovascular) and microvascular (e.g., neurological, ophthalmological, and renal) complications may occur. This review and accompanying figures provides an overview of the etiological factors for T1DM, its pathogenesis at the cellular level, and attributed complications.