A Review on The Protective Effects of Metformin in
Sepsis-Induced Organ Failure
Despite advances in sepsis management, it remains a major intensive-care-unit (ICU) concern. From new prospective, positive effects of metformin, such as anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties are considered potentially beneficial properties for management of septic patients. This article reviewed the potential ameliorative effects of metformin in sepsis-induced organ failure. Information were retrieved from PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Google Scholar. Multi-organ damage, oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokine stimulation, and altered circulation are hallmarks of sepsis. Metformin exerts its effect via adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. It improves sepsis-induced organ failure by inhibiting the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, preventing the activation of transcription factors related to inflammation, decreasing neutrophil accumulation/infiltration, and also maintaining mitochondrial membrane potential. Studies reported the safety of metformin therapeutic doses, with no evidence of lactic acidosis, in septic patients.