Proteomics is a powerful approach to study the whole set of proteins expressed in an organism, organ, tissue or cell resulting in valuable information on physiological or pathological state of a biological system. High throughput proteomic data facilitated the understanding of various biological systems with respect to normal and pathological conditions particularly in the instances of human clinical manifestations. The important role of proteins as the functional gene products encouraged scientists to apply this technology to gain a better understanding of extremely complex biological systems. In last two decades, several proteomics teams have been gradually formed in Iran. In this review, we highlight the most important findings of proteomic research groups in Iran at various areas of stem cells, Y chromosome, infertility, infectious disease and biomarker discovery.