Fermented Garlic Extract Increases Oxygen Consumption and
UCP-1 mRNA Expression in Human
Adipose-Derived Stem Cells
Fermented garlic, often called black garlic, is a traditional food ingredient used in Asian cuisine and possesses various health benefits including anti-obesity activity. The anti-obesity effects of fermented garlic might, in part, might be mediated through direct actions of its components on adipocytes. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether fermented garlic extract might stimulate the metabolic activity of human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in culture. Cell viability measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay exhibited a complex dose- response relationship. The lowest concentration (0.4 mg/ml) reduced cell viability (P<0.05 compared to no extract, Bonferroni’s multiple comparison), whereas higher concentrations (0.8 and 1.0 mg/ml) resulted in higher cell viability (P<0.05 as compared to 0.4 mg/ml). However, the extract at concentrations >2 mg/ml markedly decreased cell viability. Higher cell viability observed following treatment with 0.8~1.0 mg/ml might be associated with raised oxygen consumption. Fluorescent dye-based measurement revealed that the garlic extract at 1.0 mg/ml significantly increased oxygen consumption. We also detected a significant increase in mRNA expression levels of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP- 1). These findings suggest that fermented garlic stimulates the basal metabolic activity of human ADSCs.