Impact of Methyl-β-Cyclodextrin and Apolipoprotein A-I on The
Expression of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 and
Cholesterol Depletion in C57BL/6 Mice Astrocytes
Dysregulation of cholesterol metabolism in the brain is responsible for many lipid storage disorders, including Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC). Here, we have investigated whether cyclodextrin (CD) and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) induce the same signal to inhibit cell cholesterol accumulation by focusing on the main proteins involved in cholesterol homeostasis in response to CD and apoA-I treatment.
Materials and Methods
In this experimental study, astrocytes were treated with apoA-I or CD and then lysed in RIPA buffer. We used Western blot to detect protein levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1). Cell cholesterol content and cholesterol release in the medium were also measured.
ApoA-I induced a significant increase in ABCA1 and a mild increase in HMGCR protein level, whereas CD caused a significant increase in HMGCR with a significant decrease in ABCA1. Both apoA-I and CD increased cholesterol release in the medium. A mild, but not significant increase, in cell cholesterol content was seen by apoA-I; however, a significant increase in cell cholesterol was detected when the astrocytes were treated with CD.
CD, like apoA-I, depletes cellular cholesterol. This depletion occurs in a different way from apoA-I that is through cholesterol efflux. Depletion of cell cholesterol with CDs led to reduced protein levels of ABCA1 along with increased HMGCR and accumulation of cell cholesterol. This suggested that CDs, unlike apoA-I, could impair the balance between cholesterol synthesis and release, and interfere with cellular function that depends on ABCA1.