Metformin Reduces Vascular Assembly in High Glucose-Treated
Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells in An
The aim is to examine the effect of metformin in human microvascular endothelial cells exposed to high glucose (HG) concentration and compare them with the effects of other 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) modulators under the same condition.
Materials and Methods
In this experimental study, human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) were treated with 15 mM metformin, 1 mM 5-aminoimidazol-4-carboxamideribonucleotide (AICAR) and 10 mM compound C in the presence of 20 mM glucose (hyperglycemic condition). Migration, invasion and proliferation were evaluated as well as the capillary-like structures formation. Moreover, the expression of angiogenic genes was assessed.
Metformin significantly inhibited vessel formation and migration, although it did not change HMECs proliferation
and invasion. In addition, metformin significantly reduced collagen formation as evidenced by histological staining.
Concomitantly, expression of several genes implicated in angiogenesis and fibrosis, namely
Our data showed that metformin prevents vessel assembly in HMECs, probably through an AMPK- independent mechanism. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which this pharmacological agent affects endothelial dysfunction is of paramount importance and paves the way to its particular use in preventing development of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy, two processes where angiogenesis is exacerbated.