Methanolic Extract of Sambucus ebulus Ameliorates Clinical
Symptoms in Experimental Type 1 Diabetes through
Anti-Inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Actions
Materials and Methods
In this experimental study, fifty-six C57BL\6 mice in 8 groups (G1-G8), were enrolled. Diabetes was induced by a multiple low-dose streptozotocin (MLDS) protocol and mice were daily treated with SE extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg doses, for 35 days. Fasting blood glucose was weekly measured by a glucometer. Islets insulin content was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Percentage of CD4+, CD8+ and regulatory T cells and cytokines production levels were evaluated by flow cytometer and ELISA, respectively.
The clinical symptoms of diabetes were significantly alleviated in G2 group mice which received 400 mg/ kg SE extract. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that the insulin content of islets increased in G2 group mice. Immunophenotyping analysis indicated that the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in G2 group mice was significantly decreased. SE extract significantly increased the percentage of regulatory T cells. The extract in G2 and G4 groups mice significantly decreased IFN-γ and IL-17levels. The extract significantly increased IL-10 in G2 group mice.
The protective effect of SE extract in MLDS-induced diabetes could be partly due to a decrease of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and an increase of Treg cells resulting in an inflammation reduction in the pancreatic islets.