Epigenetic Regulation of Osteogenic and Chondrogenic
Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Culture
Management of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) capabilities to differentiate into osteogenic
and chondrogenic lineages would be of utmost importance for their future use in
difficult to treat cases of destroyed bone and cartilage. Thus, an understanding of the
epigenetic mechanisms as important modulators of stem cell differentiation might be useful.
Epigenetic mechanism refers to a process that regulates heritable and long-lasting
alterations in gene expression without changing the DNA sequence. Such stable changes
would be mediated by several mechanisms including DNA methylation and histone modifications.
The involvement of epigenetic mechanisms during MSC bone and cartilage differentiation
has been investigated during the past decade. The purpose of this review is to
cover outstanding research works that have attempted to ascertain the underlying epigenetic
changes of the nuclear genome during